The orchestra's board said Thursday that Vanska will lead at least 10 weeks of concerts for each of the next two seasons.
Vanska resigned in October during a lockout of the orchestra's musicians that lasted more than a year. The dispute ended in January, when musicians agreed to pay cuts in a new three-year contract.
After the lockout ended, Vanska said orchestra President and CEO Michael Henson would have to step down for the orchestra to heal. Henson resigned last month.
In a statement, the musicians say they're excited about Vanska's return.
Vanska was the orchestra's music director for a decade. The orchestra says he accepted the same pay cut as the musicians.